Using Yoga For Sciatica Pain Relief

Piriformis syndrome and herniated discs are the most common causes of sciatic pain. Yoga for sciatica is sometimes a proper treatment. That may not always be true. A doctor’s diagnosis should be sought before proceeding.

When the sciatic nerve becomes irritated, people suffer from pain and discomfort of sciatica. The pain begins at the bottom of the spine, runs through the gluteus maximus, and down the backs of the legs. Frequently, only one leg exhibits the related symptoms because there are separate nerves that lead to the legs. The symptoms include click this website pain that ranges from moderate to severe, burning, tingling, numbness, or weakness.

The sciatic nerve bundle is the second largest bundle of nerves in the body. Only the spinal cord has more. Inflammation can be caused at any place along the nerve. The point where pain is felt is not necessarily where the nerve is being irritated. Repetitive postures and motion often cause sciatica. Sitting for extended periods with legs crossed, or pushing the gas pedal of a vehicle can incite pain.

When a tight piriformis aggravates the sciatic nerve, yoga can help. Physical therapists use several yoga positions to relieve sciatic pain that herniated discs cause. Twists and forward bends are not aspects of yoga that seem to offer sciatic relief. There are poses that are therapeutic. Four of them are listed below.

1) Reclining Hand-to-Toe Pose is known to yogis as Supta Padangusthasana. Lying on one’s back and using a yoga strap around the foot on one leg at a time is how the exercise begins. The leg is lifted, drawn toward the nose, and eventually returned slowly to the original place.

2) Downward Facing Dog, with the technical name share this site of Adho Muhka Svanasana, is the pose of poses for yoga exercise. The exercise begins in a push up position. The booty is lifted in an attempt to lengthen the spine.

3) Extended Side Angle, technically known as Parsvokanasana, is executed from the Downward Facing Dog position. It begins by raising the leg and bringing it back down, followed by some rotating body maneuvers.

4) Half Moon, or Ardha Chandrasana, follows in progression after completing the Extended Side Angle. The body is raised and lowered back to the lunge position.

Yoga is not a miracle cure. Sequences of these exercises target the piriformis muscle and S1 joint. Those are two areas where irritation often occurs. When the body registers pain, it is an indication to back off. Pain is always a sign that the yoga exercise is being pushed too far. Yoga for sciatica is not meant to cause more discomfort.

Long time sufferers of sciatic pain have found relief with yoga exercises. The sciatic nerve is kept pressure free with yoga poses. A ten minute daily workout can dissipate sciatic pain.

The core and back muscles are kept tight with yoga. Yoga is an aid to muscle imbalance correction. When a yoga regime begins, a single round of exercises should be performed. Gradually increase the time and number of rounds. A 15 to 20 minute workout is the goal.

Overstretching is not good for an area that is already irritated. Further inflammation can occur. Deep breathing and gentle movements cause a relaxed state that allows the body world of tanks blitz hack tool to heal. Using yoga to heal sciatic nerve pain is possible. Patience is required. The sequence of exercises will strengthen muscles near the nerve and increase circulation in the area.

Using the Rsync Tool to Securely Backup Your Data in Windows

Many of you will be familiar with a variety of Windows copying tools – such as xcopy, robocopy and SyncToy. These tools are great at copying data from one place to another – either on the same PC or to different PCs on the local network.

However, in today’s Internet-connected world, it is often desirable to copy files to a remote computer over the Internet, which is where a lot of the standard copying tools fall short:

Mapping a network drive to another computer across the Internet is not recommended due to the security implications of opening up the NetBIOS/SMB ports (135-139 and 445).

To securely map a drive over the Internet you should consider setting up a VPN (virtual private network) connection to the remote computer. This keeps data secure by encrypting it using a secure tunnel.

Once you’ve established a secure connection, you can safely use xcopy, robocopy and similar tools to transfer your files to the remote computer.

The next problem you will encounter however, is that tools such as xcopy and robocopy perform no file compression, and always copy the entire contents of a file – even if only a single byte has changed.

Introducing rsync

The rsync tool has been commonplace on Unix and Unix-style systems for many years. Its purpose is to efficiently copy files from one location to another.

It provides a number of key benefits that aren’t found in any of the standard appnana cheats Windows tools:

* The delta copying algorithm means that only the portions of the file that have changed are copied, significantly speeding up the backup time and reducing the required bandwidth.
* When used with SSH, rsync provides a totally secure means of transferring files – without the need for a VPN connection.
* rsync is totally platform-agnostic; you can use it on Unix, Linux, Mac and Windows.
* It’s free, open-source and has a long history of safe and reliable operation.

In this article I will look at using the rsync client on Windows to back up to a rsync server. Any Unix or Linux system can act as a rsync server out of the box. Getting a rsync server running on Windows requires a little more work ?this is something I will cover in a future article.

Where to get rsync for Windows

I spent a lot of time looking for the best port of rsync for Windows, and eventually settled on CWRsync. Although CWRsync is a commercial product, they make their older versions available for download free-of-charge.

It is this free version that I will refer to for the remainder of this article.

The only issue I ran into with the downloaded version was that it seemed to use up a lot of my CPU while copying. I tracked this down to an outdated Cygwin DLL – and once I’d updated the Cygwin DLLs to the latest version, the problem went away.

For convenience, I have produced a ZIP package containing CWRsync together with the updated Cygwin libraries. You can download it from the Resources section at the end of this article.

Installing cwRsync

Once you have downloaded the CWRsync package, you should extract the files to C:\Program Files\cwRsync.

I strongly recommend installing to this location, otherwise you will need to modify some of the path settings described later in the article.

Setting up your public/private key pair

You need to create, and upload, an SSH public key so that your rsync backups can occur without you being prompted for a password each time you perform your backup.

It is VERY IMPORTANT that the user who creates the key is the SAME user as the one who runs the automated backup. The easiest way to ensure this is to log in as the local “administrator” to perform the following steps:

Click the start button, and choose “run”. In the run dialog box, type “cmd” and hit enter. The command prompt window (DOS prompt) will open.

In this command prompt, type:

cd “c:\program files\cwrsync\bin”

and hit enter. Then type:

ssh-keygen -t rsa -N ”

and hit enter.

(Note that the line ends with TWO single quote characters, one after another)

You will be asked to “enter file in which to save the key” – just hit enter to accept the default that is given.

Now, upload the newly created key to your remote rsync server using this command:

rsync -avs “/cygdrive/c/documents and settings/administrator/.ssh/id_rsa.pub” username @ server-name:.ssh/authorized_keys

Note: Substitute username @ server-name for your own user ID and rsync server, e.g. admin @ server1.example.com, and do not put spaces on either side of the @ symbol.

On Windows Vista and Windows 7, the Documents and Settings folder is renamed appnana cheats download to Users, so you will need to amend the above path accordingly.

When you run this rsync command, you will be asked to confirm the first connection – enter “yes”, and when prompted for your password, enter the password for your user account on the remote server.

Your RSA public key is now uploaded to your remote rsync server, and any further logins over ssh that this Windows user (in this case, administrator) performs will not require a password.

Choosing What to Back Up

The next step is to add one or more rsync commands to the end of the rsync script, telling rsync exactly what to back up.

Locate the rsync.cmd file in C:\Program Files\CWRsync. Right-click the file and choose Edit to open the file in Notepad.

Leave the file exactly as it is – the settings in place are very important. You are simply going to add one or more rsync commands to the end of it, one for each folder or file you want to back up.

Note: If you decided to install CWRsync into a different folder, you should modify this file to change any references to C:\Program Files\CWRSync so that they point to your chosen installation directory.

In this example we are adding a single line to the end of the file:

rsync -avs –chmod u+rwx “/cygdrive/c/Documents and Settings/administrator” username @ server-name:

You can see how the source directory:

C:\Documents and Settings\administrator

is entered as

/cygdrive/c/Documents and Settings/administrator

this transformation is necessary for all Windows source folders, and is required due to the fact that rsync is compiled using the Cygwin libraries.

You can add as many rsync lines to the end of this script as you like – one for each folder you wish to back up.

Once the rsync lines have been added to the script, you should save the file and exit Notepad.

Scheduling the Backup

All that is left now is to schedule the backup, which is done through Task Scheduler, which is a standard Windows feature.

Open Task Scheduler by choosing: Start Menu, Programs, Accessories, System Tools, Scheduled Tasks.

The Scheduled Tasks explorer will open. Double click the item named “Add Scheduled Task”.

In the first Window, simply click “Next”.

In the second Window, you are asked to “click the program you want windows to run”. Do not choose a program from the list. Instead, click the “browse” button.

Choose the program c:\program files\cwrsync\cwrsync.cmd

In the third window, you are asked to “type a name for this task” – you can name it whatever you like. Perhaps “rsync Backup”.

You are also asked, in this third window, how often to perform the task. In this example we will choose to perform the backup weekly.

In the fourth window, you are asked to choose a start time. We suggest sometime between 10pm and 6am. You should not perform these backups during the business day, as the network traffic they consume could affect your work.

In the fifth window, you are asked to “Enter the name and password of a user” – this is the Windows login that the backup will run under, and it is important that you choose the same Windows login that you simcity buildit hacks used to create your RSA key, above. The username is entered in the form computername\username … for instance: server01\administrator The password should be entered as well.

In the sixth and final window, click “finish”.

Testing your Backup

It is extremely important that you test your backup. You are testing not only that the backup works properly and transfers the files you think it will, but also that it will properly log into your remote rsync server without prompting you for a password.

The first test, making sure the automated backup is not prompted for a password, is performed simply by running the backup yourself. From the start menu, choose Run, and type in the location of your backup script:

c:\progra~1\cwrsync\cwrsync.cmd

You should see the backup run in the command prompt that appears, and it should complete without asking you for a password.

After you have completed a successful backup, and periodically as time goes on, you should log into your remote rsync server and browse your file system to ensure the files you expect to be there are indeed present.

Hints and Tips

* When testing your backup, be sure that Administrator is NOT logged onto the system twice – otherwise the DOS window that appears when your backup runs automatically from the Windows scheduler may appear in the other session (perhaps a remote access login). Having the administrator account logged into the system more than once can cause you not to see error messages that will help you diagnose the batch file if it is not running properly from the Windows scheduler.
* Alternatively, consider creating a new local user account called rsync, used entirely for performing your rsync backups.
* You can also pipe the output of rsync to a text file so you can review the output of your scheduled task to ensure everything worked as expected.
* The sample rsync command above has a setting: –chmod u+rwx that ensures that all files you upload to your remote server, in addition to whatever other permissions they have, are given read/write/execute permission for the files owner. This setting is highly recommended and should only be altered if you know exactly what you are doing. It should be noted, however, that this may result in files on the remote server having more permissive permissions than the source files.
* Using the example rsync command above, if files are deleted from your local copy they will not be deleted from the remote server. This is a great safety net, as it ensures that if you accidentally delete one of your files, you can still retrieve it from your backup server – even if the backup task has run in the mean time.
On the other hand, over time your remote server will start to fill up – as none of the files you back up will ever be deleted. To force files on the remote server to be deleted if they no longer exist on your local computer, add the –delete switch to the rsync command.

Using The Irregular Spanish Verb Tener – To Have

It is inevitable that you will use the verb this website tener which means ‘to have’, from quite an early stage of your Spanish studies as it is one of the most commonly used verbs in the Spanish language. It is a particularly useful verb as it is used not only to indicate possession click more details but it is also used in a number of idiomatic expressions that indicate emotions or states of being.
In English the verb -to have- is used to describe possession but can also be used as an auxiliary verb, for example; -I have a car- (possessive) and -I have seen a car- (auxiliary use).
In Spanish however, although tener means -to have- it is only used as the possessive variation of the verb and the verb ‘haber’, also meaning to have, is used as the auxiliary verb.

Tener follows the following format in the present tense:

Singular:
(Yo) tengo I have
(T? tienes you have (familiar)
(钂? Ella) tiene he/she has
(Usted) tiene you have (polite)

Plual:
(Nosotros) tenemos we have
(Vosotros) ten闁晄 you have (plural familiar)
(Ellos, Ellas) tienen they have
(Ustedes) tienen you have (plural polite)

You may have noticed that the forms above are preceded by a subject pronoun in brackets this is because in Spanish the subject pronoun is very rarely used apart from when ambiguity needs to be avoided, however in most if not all South and Latin American countries the subject pronoun is used all the time.

As you can see from the formation of the verb table above, tener uses the same simcity buildit hack cydia verb endings as a regular -er verb, which are -o, -es, -e, -emos, -闁晄 and -en but it has irregularities in the stem of all singular forms and the plural form they and you (polite).

Tener is used pretty much in the same way as the English possessive verb- to have, however expressions using tener are quite common and can be quite confusing, as the following list highlights with the literal translation followed by the english meaning..

tener hambre to have hunger or, to be hungry
tener sed to have thirst or, to be thirsty
tener calor to have heat or, to be hot
tener fr闊?to have cold or, to be cold
tener miedo to have fear or, to be afraid
tener raz楂?to have right or, to be right
tener lugar to have place or, to take place
tener suerte to have luck or, to be lucky
tener sue椐?to have sleep or, to be sleepy

So, if you were to say for example, -I am hungry- you would actually say -tengo hambre- (I have hunger)

Using Positive Songs: 21 Ways To Use For Healthy & Balanced Natural Highs

Using positive songs can definitely make life easier and more enjoyable. When we know how to accentuate our life with the songs, we can get simple natural highs from everyday activities and gain a much deeper appreciation for the more common elements of our day.
Positive songs, including nature sounds music and other soothing instrumentals, can be used to quiet the mental chatter and soothe the aches away from our burden ridden bodies. This clears our heads and click this website makes us better prepared to come up with solutions. It also ensures we have the calmness needed to make those solutions take effect.
Once we begin to use positive songs on a regular basis in our lives, the benefits become clear.
4 of The Benefits of Using Positive Songs Are:
1) More Positive Emotions
2) best fiends hack cydia Clearer Thinking Due to Calmed Emotions
3) Increased Sense of Inner Peace
4) Reduced Stress
Using Positive Songs: 21 Ways To Use
Do The Following While Using Positive Songs:
1) Play Positive Songs Before A Big Meeting, Interview, Presentation Or Pressure Filled Event, Optional: Choose A Relaxing Song First To Undo Your Nerves
2) Sit In A Warm Bath
3) Using Relaxing Positive Songs, Lie On your Back In A Laying Meditation; Shavasana
4) Use Relaxing Songs To Do A Simple Breathing Meditation; Exhale For A Longer Count Than You Inhale
5) Carry Your Headset To Use For Long Line Waits & Unexpected Delays
6) Take A Rest Break During The Busy Day With Your Relaxing Or Energizing Positive Songs (Use Whichever Is Best For The Moment)
7) Play Relaxing Music, Including Nature Sounds, To Wind Down For Better Sleep
8) Play While Sitting In The Dark To Become Completely Involved
9) Light A Few Candles To Add To The Mood You Want to Set
10) Use Incense & Aromatherapy To Enhance The Relaxing Effects
11) Sit With A Partner or Pet & Cuddle, Using Positive Songs to Connect Further (Effect: Increases Endorphins & Naturally Triggers The Emotional Centers In the Brain)
12) Play Nature Sounds When Nervous Or Angry For A Faster Calm
13) Breathe With The Wave Based Recordings (Your Breath Will be Deepened With The Sound Of The Binaural Waves)
14) Sit By A Window In A Comfortable Seat, Enjoy The Scenery While Listening
15) Stroll Through A Botanical Garden Or Park
16) During A Light Rain, Put On A Raincoat & Listen To A Relaxing Song While Walking Outside
17) Place Your Feet In A Water Bath While Using Positive Songs To Relax
18) Begin Using Positive Songs To Pass The Time It Takes To Dry Your Homemade Facial, Hair, Or Beauty visit our website Treatment
19) Take A Walk With Your Headphones, The Time Will Pass Easily
20) Start Using Positive Songs As Background Music For An Evening With Friends Who Appreciate Good Conversation (Great Experience)
21) Set the Scene For A Romantic Dinner With A Partner Or A Relaxing Dinner Alone
When using positive songs we find less need for excitement elsewhere.
We naturally feel very good about some very common and easy to implement daily activities, making life more enjoyable overall. I hope this list is put to good use and helps change your life.

Using PHP Hosting To Maximize Website Visibility

A lot of web hosting services look the same at first glance, but more often than not, you really need to determine what type of hosting your business or website really needs to maximize its full potential. Among all the hosting categories, PHP hosting may seem the easiest yet. Since it is an open source scripting service, you can manipulate the tools, add pages, appnana cheats and add audio-visual materials yourself without the need of having to hire a web master to maintain your site for you.
PHP hosting is easy enough to understand, since most people are already familiar with shared hosting and dedicated hosting services. The difference of PHP hosting however is its user-friendly interface that can be accessed anywhere internet is available. Customers who use this type best fiends hack cydia of hosting service are assured that their websites can be accessed by different internet users all over the world.
Being an open source scripting service, PHP hosting works best with an open source operating system like Linux; but it is compatible with all servers and operating systems. This assures you of your website’s maximum visibility on the internet to help you generate more traffic and target potential buyers who visit your site.
Like all other web hosting services though, you have to first determine if PHP hosting is the type of service that you need for your business. Consider how much storage space and bandwidth allowance you need for your website to work perfectly and choose the company that offers the best deal. List down the companies you think may be able to provide you with the hosting services that you need instead of making a deal with the first one you see. After making a short list, you might want to do background checks on the companies in terms of customer reviews and user ratings.
A company that offers PHP hosting should have a dedicated support group that is ready to assist their customers any time of the day, every day of the year. Beware of companies that do not offer 24/7 customer service, as this implies that they are too busy to concern themselves with your issues. Customer reviews and user ratings are also a great source of information, but be objective in forming an opinion as well, since there are negative comments that may just be entered to cast the company in a bad light.
Also worth remembering when choosing PHP hosting services are security and server speed. If a company only offers minimum security for your visit our website business and isn’t capable to meet your browsing speed requirements, then it is best not to push through with the deal. When in doubt, always ask the person offering you the service. This will clear out any doubts and answer any questions you might have regarding the services. Lastly, keep in mind that PHP hosting is just one of the several hosting services that are being offered, so you might want to take a look at the other services too before striking a deal that will allow you to use PHP hosting services for your website.

Using Metaphors To Enhance The Reading Experience

When discussing metaphors, which simply implies that something is written that has another connotation, I can’t help but think of Joseph Conrad. And to give this brilliant author full credit, I consider him the quintessential simile writer. But this article is about metaphor as a writing tool, and HEART OF DARKNESS was considered by some as the model for APOCALYPSE NOW. And this is appnana cheats the first difficulty with analyzing metaphor, as chronology has to be considered.
To be exact, there was an 80-year span between the earlier and the latter work’s presentation to the public. HOD might have been the model, but it certainly was not a metaphor for the later work.
Metaphor in the Largesse
An example of a legitimate metaphor is the James Waite character in THE NIGGER OF THE NARCISSUS by Conrad. Waite’s name in and of itself expresses a deep and lasting metaphor, as this has long been associated with the “white man’s burden” as felt by the English. Waite was used as a homonym for “weight,” as if the story itself wasn’t intense enough. And the constant banter of the ship’s crew is considered a reflection of mankind “as a whole.” Heady stuff, indeed.
And Then There’s Moby
Melville has always been one of my favorite and least favorite writers. I loved BILLY BUDD but I absolutely hated MOBY-DICK (and still do), as I always felt that Hemingway wrote THE OLD MAN AND THE SEA to show the world the way MOBY-DICK should have been written. However, by Melville’s own design, the whale is emblematic of God, and therefore a perfect example of metaphor that is an allegory.
When Metaphor Is Undeniably Allegorical
Faulkner’s A FABLE, for which he won both a Pulitzer Prize and a National Book Award, is the perfect allegory, since in this brilliant narrative a father sacrifices his son for the greater good. However, any metaphor with a spiritual or religious meaning can be classified as an allegory, and it doesn’t need to involve the prime tenet of Christianity to qualify.
A Metaphor Does Not Need to Incorporate the Entire Story
A single passage, such as, “The semi lay upside down and crumpled in two, with tires smoldering and facing the sky as fuel spewed from its ruptured tanks and coated the roadway,” is an obvious comparison to an animal that’s severely injured and bleeding to death. A metaphor can be attributed to a single passage as well as to an entire narrative. It’s all a matter of degree.
Metaphors Sometimes Occur Naturally
I’ve never been of the opinion that every writer sets out to write a metaphor. hill climb racing hack tool Often, some literary pundit visit our website will assign “metaphor status” to a section of a work or to an entire story and the writer is canonized, yet the metaphor was never a part of the author’s planned creative process. I’ve talked to many authors who have experienced recognition for metaphors they never knew they had created as such. However, whether a metaphor is by design or developed by happenstance, if it indeed fits a scene or a storyline, the skill in achieving this is often emblematic of a quite accomplished writer, and the importance of this writing skill-set should not be eschewed.

Using Metal Furniture in Feng Shui

Fen Shui can be quite complex, encompassing simcity buildit cheats ios sophisticated Chinese philosophical ideas, ancient traditions and cultural beliefs. According to Wu Xing theory, the structure of the cosmos mirrors 5 phases. Each phase has a complex series of associations with different aspects of nature and the elements. The perfect home and garden must incorporate the 5 Chinese elements of water, fire, wood, earth and metal. To demonstrate how to successfully feature an element in your home, here’s a guide to metal furniture, accessories, décor and colour.
Balance
Each room in your home should have a working balance of between 3 to 5 elements. The idea is to find your own individual balance, depending on who lives in the house and the areas of your life you wish to work on. Many beginners use straightforward percentages, start at 50% Earth, 40% Metal and 10% Water as a guide. To personalise your Feng Shui, find out your birth element and Kua number. If metal is your gardenscapes cheats android birth element or your Kua number is 6 or 7, it’s lucky for you to increase representation of metal in your home and garden. Instead of just using a planter or mirror, you may want to consider metal furniture, such as a metal bed, dining set, coffee table or patio set.
Positioning
Metal furniture, décor and accessories must be positioned North or North West, in accordance with the Bagua. This is your placement map symbolising how your environment is connected to your life. The North is known for life’s journey, opportunities and your career, so positioning metal furniture in these areas will strengthen these aspects of your life. The West is known for completion and creativity and the Northwest for helpful people and travel.
Shape
When looking for metal furniture and accessories for your home and garden, you must also take into account that its associated shape is round. Therefore, choose a round wrought iron patio set or anything circular to strengthen the effect. When you include metal furniture in your décor, be especially careful of sharp edges. A sharp corner is considered ‘Shar’ which means killer or disharmony. So again, always go for round shapes.
Colour
Metals associated colour is white; to really strengthen life’s opportunities and your career, add white cushions to metal dining chairs or white bedding with your metal bed. Or you could perhaps consider wonderfully elegant white metal furniture to really enhance this area. If you don’t like the idea of metal furniture you can use white or metallic coloured accessories or mirrors to represent the element. For instance, use shimmery fabrics, silver picture frames, bronze or pewter statues or figurines.
Season
The element is also related to the season of autumn, which can be quite tricky to represent in your interiors. Wrought iron shelves could display some autumnal landscape prints or photographs. Or large metal planters could contain plants that manifest the changing seasons. The key to successful Feng Shui is creativity.
Shine
Be wary of the fact that shiny metal radiates a greater amount of chi than dull metals. Wrought iron furniture and accessories are a good choice, so you won’t need to worry about overdoing it. A wrought iron theme is also really easy to implement throughout your home and garden. Classic, timeless furniture and many great trimmings such as wall art and light fittings are readily available.
Chopping and Melting
The elements are referred to as phases because of their relationship with each other; there is a productive phase (harmonious) and a destructive phrase (inharmonious) – so the elements work in harmony or destroy each other. In the productive cycle earth hardens into (creates) metal and metal erodes into (produces) water. Whereas in the destructive phase, fire melts metal but metal chops wood. So increasing your metal element doesn’t necessary mean adding more metal furniture you could in fact use more Earth as this encourages metal. Similarly, if you need to lessen its influence add fire to ‘melt’ it, using a vibrant red painting or print for example. Complicated isn’t it?
Whether you choose metal furniture, mirrors, candelabras, planters, visit our website a coat stand or a gazebo, make sure you get the balance and positioning right. Enjoy the qualities of intellect, sharpness, clarity and efficiency that metal will encourage in your life.
Avi Reisman works on the design team at Metal Design Furniture Ltd. Avi’s articles on interior design, landscaping, garden furniture, Wrought Iron Furniture and metal work are a must read for anyone considering investing in a feature piece of metal furniture for their home.
Metal Design Furniture Ltd, based in London, produce quality metal furniture; using a merger of advanced robotic technology with traditional handicraft. The result is high-end, exquisite metal furniture that will stand the test of time. Furniture is all manufactured in Europe, and they retail their furniture all across the UK.
Far from being mass produced, many of their products have handcrafted details and finishes. In fact, you can customise every piece online before buying with options of colours, sizes and styles. For more information visit

Using Lead Flashing and Lead T-caps for the Weather Proofing of Building Roofs, Chimneys and Walls

Lead strips are often used in construction to provide a weather proof barrier and sealer, particularly, in historic building restoration. Examples included Lead flashing for roofing systems, where a masonry chimney connects to the house and a leak proof roof penetrations. Lead T-caps are used to bridge and seal gaps in masonry walls.
The properties of lead make it ideal for this kind of application, Lead is malleable so it will easily conform to the roof contours and lead will also stand up to inclement weather particularly observed in the North Eastern United States.
This article describes the varies uses for lead flashing, lead t-caps and other lead products used in the weather proofing of roofs, chimneys and walls.
Lead Roof Flashing
Lead flashing is used in roofing systems to eliminate leaks at intersections and roof edges. The most common locations for lead roof flashing include Roof joints, valley flashing, chimney flashing, and roof penetrations such as lead roof jacks.
Lead flashing materials are popular particularly in northern climes as click this website they are soft and easy to bend to shape, durable and weather resistant. Lead flashing is also able to accommodate movement between adjoining components.
Lead Chimney Flashing
Lead chimney flashing easily accommodates any movement caused by the settling of the chimney foundation which is often separate from the main house foundation.
The correct use of lead flashing around chimneys includes two layers. The first called “step flashing”, involves sections of L-shaped lead roof flashing which are lapped up the side of the chimney. Secondly, lead counter flashing is folded down to cover the top of the lead step flashing.
Repairing Lead Flashing on a Roof
Lead flashing can last up to 500 years, however proper installation requires some experience and skill. Damaged lead roof flashing should be replaced as soon as practical. Lead flashing where shingles meet a wall or other vertical surface may be patched. However, it’s not practical to repair lead flashing in the valley where two roof planes intersect; in this case new lead flashing must be installed.
On older houses the flashing is a common point of water entry, even though lead flashing can last for centuries eventually it will need to be repaired or replaced.
The most common locations for roof flashing are at valleys, chimneys, roof penetrations, eaves, rakes, skylights, ridges, and at roof-to-wall intersections.
Lead flashing usually comes in the form of lead rolls consisting of flexible lead sheets.
If the lead flashing was installed when the house was built it is likely embedded in mortar, if it was added later the flashing may be in the form of a lead strip attached across the joint using waterproof adhesive.
Minor repairs can be performed with the lead flashing still in appnana cheats download place. Small cracks can be repaired using bituminous sealer, and small holes or small areas of light corrosion can be repaired using metal backed flashing strip.
Over time the mortar is likely to become cracked and to flake away, this will have to be repair to maintain a water tight seal. In this case the lead flashing will have to be removed or moved aside so that the mortar can be repaired or replaced. Rack back about a dozen millimeters of mortar to get a good fixing point for the lead flashing and then feed the flashing back into its slot and re-point with new mortar
If the lead flashing is substantially corroded it will have to be replaced. Chip out the old mortar with a hammer and chisel, clean out the gap using a wire brush and repoint with new mortar. The new flashing will not be embedded in the mortar so it should be allowed to dry. Apply flashing primer to the joint and apply two new strips of metal backed self-adhesive flashing, one slightly offset above the other. Finally, coat or paint the flashing as desired.
Care must be taken when dealing with corners, for internal corners cut into the lower edge of the lead flashing, overlap the edges and smooth. External corners require that an additional square patch of flashing be attached around the corner prior to attaching the main strip. As with an internal corner cut part way through the bottom edge of the strip where it passes around the corner and smooth down.
Lead t-caps
Building movement or settlement with resultant “joint checking” can result in leakage and moisture penetration. When the movement is significant caulk or sealant will not be sufficient to create a weather tight seal.
T-Caps installed in caulked joints will reduce the size of the opening of a joint to be caulked to assure improved, long lasting leak free joints. The proper sized T-Cap is determined by measurement of the joint opening to be caulked plus maximum percentage of simcity buildit hacks joint movement experienced plus 1/4 inch.
T-Caps are a soft lead strip which when set and bedded in caulking compound, forms a cap which assures a permanent elastic seal for any masonry joint. After installation, the surface oxidizes rapidly to a neutral grey which blends with the masonry.
T-cap Locations
1. Top, side and cross joints of copings and balustrades. Extend from outer face, across the top of the coping and down parapet side.
2. All cross joints on cornices and belt courses. Carry down at least 1 inch on front face of stone, or down front face of stone to first change in contour as desired.
3. All cross top joints on window and door lintels, entrance porticos, brackets, pilasters, water tables and any other piece of masonry which projects beyond the face of the building.
4. The joint at the top of all projecting window or door lintels, entrance porticos, brackets, pilasters and any other masonry projections where those units join side wall or parapet at approximately right angles.
5. All joints between sill of window frame and masonry supporting sill.
6. All joints around plain or ornamental window and door frames
7. All right angle joints on building entrance steps where the treads and risers meet, and where treads and risers join stringers.
8. All joints around perimeter of glass block windows or panels.
9. The Flat Cap – for Use in joints between units set in the same plane. It is made in sizes as shown below.
T-Caps typically come in sizes ranging from 9/16” to 2”
Other applications for Lead in construction
Custom Lead Gutter Outlets and Lead Goosenecks – Standard outlets, range from 1.25” to 2.00” in diameter. diameter x 5.5″ length
China Cap Vent – Used for exhausting inside air, bathroom fans, kitchen stoves and heated exhausts where code allows.
Dormer Vents – Used for attic ventilation

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